Java Notes

public class Hello {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello World!");


Primative types and wrappers

Primitive Object
int Integer
long Long
float Float
double Double
char Char
boolean Boolean

Can create Scanner, like new Scanner( Methods:

Return type Method name Description
boolean hasNext() returns true if more data is present
boolean hasNextInt() returns true if the next thing to read is an integer
boolean hasNextFloat() returns true if the next thing to read is a float
boolean hasNextDouble() returns true if the next thing to read is a double
Integer nextInt() returns the next thing to read as an integer
Float nextFloat() returns the next thing to read as a float
double nextDouble() returns the next thing to read as a double
String next() returns the next thing to read as a String
String nextLine() returns all before the next newline

String manipulation: Examples below use a string variable called ā€œsā€

Python Java Description
s[3] s.charAt(3) Return character in 3rd position
s[2:4] s.substring(2,4) Return substring from 2nd up to but not including 4th
len(s) s.length() Return the length of the string
s.find('x') s.indexOf("x") Find the first occurrence of x
s.split(',') s.split(",") Split the string at ',' into a list/array of strings
s.split() s.split("\\s+") Split out non-whitespace strings
s + s s.concat(s) Concatenate two strings together (can still use +)
s.strip() s.trim() Remove any whitespace at the beginning or end
s.replace("me", "I") same as Python Replace all occurrences of first parameter by second
s.upper() s.toUpper() Return string in uppercase; similarly Java toLower

List methods: Suppose w and w2 are lists of strings --

Python Java notes
value of w[3] w.get(3) Return item in 3rd position
w[3] = 'a' w.set(3, "a") Set item in 3rd position
w.append('a') w.add("a") Append item
len(w) w.size() Return the number of items in the list
w.find('x') w.indexOf("x") Find index of the first occurrence of x, or -1
w += w2 w.addAll(w2) add all of list w2, modifying w
'x' in w w.contains("x") membership test
not bool(w) w.isEmpty() Python w is True if not empty
w[:]=[] w.clear() Remove all items
w.pop(2) w.remove(2) remove and return item at position 2
w.sort() w.sort() sort

To separate with ", " the strings in list sList:

', '.join(sList) in Python
String.join(", ", sList) in Java

Here is a function to return a new array containing the squares of the numbers in a passed array. See the use of the length attribute:

public static int[] squares(int[] nums)
    int n = nums.length;
    int[] sq = new int[n];
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        sq[i] = nums[i]*nums[i];
    return sq;

Could be called with:

int[] vals = {2, 5, 6, 22},
      vals2 = squares(vals);


Python Java
d = dict() d = new HashMap<keyType, valueType>()
d[key] = v d.set(key, v)
v = d[key] v = d.get(key) // may be null
d.keys() d.getKeys()

Print formatted string with fieldwidth, float precision:

Python print('{:20} and {:7.2f}'.format(a, 2.3456))
Java System.out.format("%20s and %7.2f%n", a, 2.3456);

Boolean Operators

Python Java
and &&
or ||
not !


if (condition) {
} else {

Loops and Iteration

for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) {

for (start clause; stop clause; step clause) {

If s is a sequence (of element type tp in Java)

for e in s:             # Python
for (tp e : s) {          //Java
while (condition) {

Class definitions:

class Point:             # Python
    def __init__(self, x, y):
        self.x = x
        self.y = y

    def getX(self):
        return self.x

    def __str__(self):
        return '({}, {})'.format(self.x, self.y)
class Point            // Java
    private int x, y;

    public Point(int x, int y)
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;

    public int getX()
        return x;

    public String toString()
        return String.format("(%s, %s)", x, y);


public interface Response
    boolean execute(String[] tokens);

    String getCommandName();

    String help();


Heading for class using Response interface:

public class Goer implements Response